SpinCore Logo Home
Contact Us
About Us
Applications
Purchasing Info
Software Downloads

banner_left.jpg banner_right.jpg




Implementation of Digital Modulation on SpinCore PulseBlasterDDS And RadioProcessor Boards

Introduction:

Digital modulation is used to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog channel at a high frequency. This enables us to transmit signals generated in a digital circuit across a physical medium. This is because digital signals can be handled with higher security and digital systems are readily and widely available.

Depending on which parameter of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the digital message signal, we obtain three main variants of digital modulation called Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK).


Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

In ASK the amplitude of the transmitted carrier signal is varied in accordance with the logic levels of the message signal.

SpinCore PulseBasterDDS Board Implementation For ASK:

On the SpinCore PulseBasterDDS board, the Amplitude Shift Keying waveform is generated using NCO, by controlling the gating and/or amplitude registers with respect to the input logic sequence using the PulseBlaster Timing Core.

The demo source code written here gives the flexibility of choosing the different bit rate and the length of the input sequence and specifying the amplitude of the carrier for different logic bits.

Note that the bit rate can not be faster than (clock/9) for proper results.

The complete C code demonstrating this implementation is available for direct download. It uses a sinusoidal waveform as the carrier signal. The carrier is generated using a similar technique to that used for analog modulation.

Note that this code can be extended to the more general case of an M-ary baseband signal as well (such as quantizing a two or three bits at a time instead of one bit).

Inputs to the program are: 
  1. Carrier signal frequency
  2. Amplitude for a logic 1
  3. Amplitude for a logic 0
  4. Length of the message signal
  5. Logic sequence comprising the message signal.
Output: ASK modulated waveform.

If the amplitude level for the carrier wave transmitted is either "0" or "1" for logical values of "0" and "1" respectively then we can use the pb_inst_radio instead of pb_inst_radio_shape. This is because pb_inst_radio does not allow us to select amplitude registers.

The following SpinAPI function is used to load the Amplitude registers:

pb_set_amp(amp0, 0);
pb_set_amp(amp1, 1);

The total number of amplitude levels in the carrier waveform depends on the total number of the amplitude registers available on the board being used. If you would like a board with more amplitude registers, please contact SpinCore.

The program allows the user to choose any amplitude values between 0.0 and 1.0 for the two logic levels. Amplitude register values are programmed with respect to the input logic values and sequence. The sample code is as shown below for the same. They are controlled and fed accordingly by the PulseBlaster Timing Core.

 for (i=0;i<length;i++)
       {
        if(!seq[i])
            {
                pb_inst_radio_shape(0,0,0,0, TX_ENABLE, NO_PHASE_RESET, NO_TRIGGER, NO_SHAPE, 0, 0x00,CONTINUE, 0, tm*us);   
            }
        else
            {
                pb_inst_radio_shape(0,0,0,0, TX_ENABLE, NO_PHASE_RESET, NO_TRIGGER, NO_SHAPE, 1, 0x0F,CONTINUE, 0, tm*us);   
            }
       }

The parameter passed after the "NO_SHAPE" parameter in the above code specifies the correct amplitude register for the ith bit in the logic sequence, as specified by the user.

ASK waveforms generated using the example code are shown in the figures below.

ASK1

Figure 1 shows an ASK waveform generated using the code.

Channel 1 shows the output ASK for a carrier frequency of Fc = 0.5 MHz and a baseband signal bit rate of 100 kbps. The amplitude for a logic 0 = 0.0 V and the amplitude for a logic 1 = 1V. The message signal was chosen to be the logic sequence "10101".

Channel 2 shows the input modulating signal. i.e. input message (logic sequence) signal with bit rate = 100 kbps.

                                         





ASk2


Figure 2 shows another ASK waveform generated using the example code.

Channel 1 shows the output ASK for a carrier frequency of Fc = 0.5 MHz and a baseband signal bit rate of 100 kbps. The amplitude for a logic 0 = 0.5 V and the amplitude for a logic 1 = 1V. The message signal was chosen to be a logic sequence "10101".

Channel 2 shows the input modulating signal. i.e. input message (logic sequence) signal with bit rate = 100 kbps.

                       





ASk3


Figure 3 shows output ASK waveform generated using the example code.

Channel 1 shows the output ASK for a carrier frequency of Fc = 0.5 MHz  and a baseband signal bit rate of 100 kbps. The amplitude for a logic 0 = 0.5 V and the amplitude for a logic 1 = 1V. The message signal was chosen to be a logic sequence "10011001".

Channel 2 shows the input modulating signal. i.e. input message (logic sequence) signal with bit rate = 100 kbps.
     



Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)

In FSK the frequency of the transmitted carrier signal is varied in accordance with the logic of levels of the message signal while keeping the amplitude constant.

SpinCore PulseBasterDDS Board Implementation For FSK:

On the SpinCore PulseBasterDDS board, the Frequency Shift Keying waveform is generated using the NCO, by controlling the frequency registers with respect to the input logic sequence using the PulseBlaster Timing Core.

The demo source code written here gives the flexibility of choosing a different bit rate and the length of the input sequence and specifying the phase of the carrier for different logic bits.

Note that the bit rate can not be faster than (clock/9) for proper results.

The complete C code demonstrating this implementation is available for direct download. It uses a sinusoidal waveform as a carrier signal. The carrier is generated using a similar technique to that used for analog modulation.

Note that this code can be extended to the more general case of an M-ary baseband signal as well.

Inputs are: 
  1. Frequency to transfer for logic 1
  2. Frequency to transfer for logic 0
  3. Length of the message signal.
  4. Logic sequence comprising the message signal.

Output: FSK modulated waveform.

Following SpinAPI function is used to load the Frequency registers:

pb_set_freq (fc1*MHz);
pb_set_freq(fc2*MHz);

Total number of unique frequency changes in the carrier waveform with respect to logic levels depends on the total number of the Frequency registers available.

The program allows the user to choose any frequency values between 1 and 100 MHz. for the two logic levels.
Frequency register values are programmed with respect to the input logic values and sequence.
They are controlled and fed accordingly by the PulseBlaster Timing Core.
The sample code is as shown below for the same.

for (i=0;i<length;i++)
       {
        if(!seq[i])
            {
                pb_inst_radio(0,0,0,0, TX_ENABLE, NO_PHASE_RESET, NO_TRIGGER, 0x00,CONTINUE, 0, tm*us);  
            }
        else
            {
                pb_inst_radio(1,0,0,0, TX_ENABLE, NO_PHASE_RESET, NO_TRIGGER, 0x0F,CONTINUE, 0, tm*us);  
            }
       }


The first parameter passed in the pb_inst_radio instruction above corresponds to the chosen frequency for the ith bit in the logic sequence defined by the user.

Outputs for the different frequencies of the carrier signal for different logic pulses are shown below.
         

FSK1


Figure 4 shows an FSK waveform generated using the source code on a PulseBlasterDDS board.

Channel 1 shows the output FSK for a carrier frequency for logic level 0 is Fc(0) = 0.5 MHz and for logic level 1 is Fc(1) = 1 MHz.

Channel 2 shows the input modulating signal. i.e. input message (logic sequence) signal with bit rate = 100 kbps and logic sequence = "10101".

                                         





FSK2


Figure 5 shows the FSK waveform generated using the example source code but this time with some different parameters.

Channel 1 shows the output FSK for carrier frequency for logic level 0 is Fc(0) = 0.2 MHz and for logic level 1 is Fc(1) = 2 MHz.

Channel 2 shows the input modulating signal. i.e. input message (logic sequence) signal with bit rate = 100 kbps and logic sequence = "10101".

                                        





FSK3

Figure 6 shows output FSK waveform generated using the example source code but with different length sequence of input message signal

Channel 1 shows the output FSK for carrier frequency with logic level 0 is Fc(0) = 0.2 MHz and for logic level 1 is Fc(1) = 1 MHz.

Channel 2 shows the input modulating signal. i.e. input message (logic sequence) signal with bit rate = 100 kbps and logic sequence = "10011001".

     


Phase Shift Keying (PSK)

In PSK, the phase of the transmitted carrier signal is varied in accordance to the logic of levels of the message signal while keeping the amplitude constant.

SpinCore PulseBasterDDS Board Implementation For PSK:

The PSK implementation shown here is implemented on the PulseBlasterDDS and RadioProcessor boards using similar methods to FSK.

The Phase Shift Keying waveform is generated using the NCO, by controlling the phase registers with respect to the input logic sequence using the PulseBlaster Timing Core.

The demo source code written here gives the flexibility of choosing the different bit rate and the length of the input sequence and specifying the phase of the carrier for different logic bits.

Note that the bit rate can not be faster than (clock/9) for proper results.

The complete C code demonstrating this implementation is available for direct download.  It uses a sinusoidal waveform as a carrier signal. The carrier is generated using a similar technique to that used for analog modulation.

Note that this code can be extended to the more general case of an M-ary baseband signal as well.

Inputs are: 
  1. Phase corresponding to a logic 1
  2. Phase corresponding to a logic 0
  3. The frequency of the carrier signal.
  4. Length of the message signal.
  5. Logic sequence comprising the message signal.

Output: PSK modulated waveform.


Following SpinAPI function is used to load the Phase registers:

pb_set_phase (phase1);
pb_set_phase(phase2);

The total number of unique phase changes in the carrier waveform with respect to logic levels depends on the total number of the phase registers available. If you would like to have more phase registers available, please contact SpinCore.

The program allows the user to choose any phase values between 0 and 360 degrees for the two logic levels.
Phase register values are programmed with respect to the input logic values and sequence.
They are controlled and fed accordingly by the PulseBlaster Timing Core.
The sample code is as shown below for the same.

for (i=0;i<length;i++)
       {
        if(!seq[i])
            {
                pb_inst_radio(0,0,0,0, TX_ENABLE, NO_PHASE_RESET, NO_TRIGGER, 0x00,CONTINUE, 0, tm*us);  
            }
        else
            {
                pb_inst_radio(0,0,0,1, TX_ENABLE, NO_PHASE_RESET, NO_TRIGGER, 0x0F,CONTINUE, 0, tm*us);   
            }
      }

The fourth parameter above shows the outputting of the corresponding phase to the ith bit in the logic sequence, as defined by the user.

Outputs for the different values of phase of the carrier signal for different logic pulses are shown below.



PSK1

Figure 7 shows the PSK waveform generated using the example source code on a PulseBlasterDDS board.

Channel 1 shows the output PSK of a carrier signal with phase for logic 0 as phase(0) = 0 degrees and for logic 1 as phase(1) = 180 degrees and having a carrier frequency = 200 kHz.

Channel 2 shows the input modulating signal. i.e. input message (logic sequence) signal with bit rate = 100 kbps and logic sequence = "10101".


   





PSK2

Figure 8 shows the PSK waveform generated using the example source code but with different input parameters.

Channel 1 shows the output PSK of a carrier signal with phase for logic 0 as phase(0) = 90 degrees and for logic 1 as phase(1) = 270 degrees and having a carrier frequency = 200 kHz.

Channel 2 shows the input modulating signal. i.e. input message (logic sequence) signal with bit rate = 100 kbps and logic sequence = "10101".

                                        





PSK3

Figure 9 shows output PSK waveform generated using the example source code for different length of input message signal.

Channel 1 shows the output PSK of a carrier signal with phase for logic level 0 as phase(0) = 0 degrees and for logic level 1 as phase(1) = 270 degrees and having a carrier frequency = 200 kHz.


Channel 2 shows the input modulating signal. i.e. input message (logic sequence) signal with bit rate = 100 kbps and logic sequence = "10011001".


These are only the basics of what you can do using SpinCore's PulseBlasterDDS and RadioProcessor boards. Please see the manuals of the boards and source code examples in SpinAPI for more details.

 
 


Home | Products | Applications | Contact Us | Purchasing Info | About Us | Software Downloads

© 2017 SpinCore Technologies, Inc.